Dolga pot do skupne evropske varnosti in #defence

| Februar 13, 2018

Februarja 14-15 februarja se bodo ministri za obrambo NATO 2018 ponovno sestali v Bruslju, da bi razpravljali o glavnih grožnjah, s katerimi se danes sooča svet. Nato sestavljajo države članice 29, od katerih pa so 22 hkrati države članice EU, piše Adomas Abromaitis.

Speaking in general, the decisions taken by NATO are binding on the EU. On the one hand, NATO and the US, as its main financial donor, and Europe very often have different goals. Their interests and even views on the ways to achieve security are not always the same. The more so the differences exist inside the EU either. A European military level of ambitions has grown significantly in recent times. Decision to establish a European Union defence pact, known as a Permanent Structured Cooperation on security and defence (PESCO) at the end of the previous year became a clear indicator of this trend.

It is the first real attempt to form the EU independent defence without reliance on NATO. Though the EU member states actively support the idea of closer European cooperation in security and defence, they do not always agree on the European UnionXCHARXs work in this area. In reality not all the states are ready to spend more on defence even in the framework of NATO, which requires spending at least 2% of their GDP. Thus, according to NATOXCHARXs own figures, only the US (not an EU member state), Great Britain (leaving the EU), Greece, Estonia, Poland and Romania in 2017 met the requirement. So other countries probably would like to strengthen their defence but are not capable or even do not want to pay additional money for a new EU military project.

It should be noted that only those countries that have a great dependence on NATO support and have no chance to protect themselves, spend 2% of their GDP on defence or show readiness to increase spending (Latvia, Lithuania). Such EU member states as France and Germany are ready to XCHARXlead the processXCHARX without increasing in contributions. They have higher level of strategic independence than the Baltic States or other countries of Eastern Europe. For example, French military XCHARX industrial complex is capable of producing all kinds of modern weapons XCHARX from infantry weapons to ballistic missiles, nuclear submarines, aircraft carriers and supersonic aircraft.

Kar se tiče tega, Pariz vzdržuje stabilne diplomatske odnose z Bližnjim vzhodom in afriškimi državami. Francija ima tudi ugled dolgoletnega partnerja Rusije in je v kriznih razmerah sposobna najti skupen jezik z Moskvo. Veliko pozornosti posveča nacionalnim interesom, ki presegajo njegove meje.

Pomembno je tudi, da je nedavno v Parizu predstavil najizrazitejši načrt za oblikovanje integriranih vseevropskih sil za hitro posredovanje s strani 2020 predvsem za uporabo v ekspedicijskih operacijah za uveljavljanje miru v Afriki. Vojaška pobuda francoskega predsednika Macrona vsebuje točke 17, namenjene izboljšanju usposabljanja vojaških enot evropskih držav in povečanju stopnje bojne pripravljenosti nacionalnih oboroženih sil. Hkrati francoski projekt ne bo postal del obstoječih institucij, temveč se bo izvajal vzporedno s projekti Nata. Francija namerava vztrajno spodbujati projekt med drugimi zavezniki EU.

Drugi interesi držav članic EU niso tako globalni. Oblikujeta svojo politiko na področju varnosti in obrambe, da bi okrepili zmožnosti EU, da se zaščitijo in pritegnejo pozornost na svoje pomanjkljivosti. Lahko ponudijo le nekaj vojakov. Njihovi interesi ne segajo čez njihove meje in jih ne zanimajo za razpršitev prizadevanj, na primer prek Afrike.

The EU leadership and member states have not yet reached an agreement on the concept of military integration, the start of which was given since the adoption the decision to establish a Permanent Structured Cooperation on security and defence. In particular, the High Representative of the European Union for Foreign Affairs, Federica Mogherini, proposes a long-term approach to stimulating a closer integration of the European military planning, procurement and deployment, as well as the integration of diplomatic and defence functions.

Takšen počasen napredek je bolj primeren za uradnike zveze NATO, ki jih z revolucionarnim francoskim projektom skrbi. Zato je generalni sekretar Stoltenberg opozoril svoje francoske kolege na izogibanje korakov proti evropski vojaški integraciji, kar bi lahko pripeljalo do njegove nepotrebne podvajanja zmožnosti zavezništva in, kar je najbolj nevarno, ustvarjajo konkurenco med vodilnimi proizvajalci orožja (Francija, Nemčija, Italija in nekatere druge evropske države), medtem ko je evropsko vojsko ponovno opremila s sodobnimi modeli, da bi jih približala istemu standardu.

Tako države članice EU ob podpori ideje o tesnejšem sodelovanju na vojaškem področju nimajo skupne strategije. Za kompromis in ravnotežje pri oblikovanju močnega obrambnega sistema EU, ki bo dopolnjevala obstoječo strukturo Nata, se ne bo več strmoglavilo. Dolga pot do skupnih stališč pomeni za Evropo veliko pot do evropske obrambe.

Tags: , , ,

Kategorija: Frontpage, Obramba, EU, Nato, Mnenje